In addition to vitamins, our body needs to take in from food minerals and trace elements that the body cannot create on its own. Minerals are involved in the construction of body tissues, condition the constant osmotic pressure in body fluids, regulate, activate and control metabolic processes and are also important for the conduction of nerve impulses. They are used as activators or components of hormones and enzymes. They play an important role in maintaining a stable pH and a stable environment in the body. Many minerals play an important role in the prevention of diseases of civilization.

Minerals make up about 4% of our body weight.

Minerals and trace elements include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, sulfur, zinc, selenium, silicon, chromium, iodine, fluorine, copper, manganese, cobalt, boron and others.

It is important in what proportion these minerals are present in the body, because in some cases an excess of them can be toxic to the body (selenium, aluminium).

Recommended daily doses vary from infants to athletes. What form of mineral mixtures we take is also very important.

So what forms of minerals are best for our bodies? Studies have confirmed that organic forms of minerals have better absorption than inorganic forms and thus more suitable for internal use.

The organic forms of minerals whose presence is desirable in the composition of dietary supplements are, first of all, citrates
Lactate, Aspartate and Gluconate.

The least suitable forms for our organism can be considered oxides. Therefore, it is desirable to pay attention to both the composition of mineral mixtures and the forms of the elements contained.

Calcium: (Ca)

is the most valuable mineral in our body, especially in the bones and teeth. Low calcium intake in the diet of children has a negative impact on bone mineralisation. It is a very important element in pregnancy. Adequate calcium intake is needed for chemical balance in the body. It is involved in proper muscle and nerve function, regulates heart rhythm and is also necessary for the activation of certain enzymes as well as for proper blood clotting.

Its recommended daily dose is 800 – 1500 mg.

Magnesium: (Mg)

regulates heart rhythm and muscle contractions, protects nerves and helps the body use vitamins C and E and convert glucose into energy. It is indispensable for enzyme metabolism. It plays an important role in the process of blood clotting, estrogen formation, stomach, intestinal and bladder function. Magnesium is an anti-stress agent, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antitoxic. But most people, and even worse children, are deficient in magnesium. This is usually due to the fact that it is magnesium that the body uses to metabolize sugar and white flour products. And so the amount of magnesium in the body decreases dramatically. Also for this reason, children should limit sweets to a reasonable level. Magnesium deficiency manifests itself in muscle (calf) cramps, dizziness, nervousness, alternating diarrhoea with constipation, tic in the eye. Increased magnesium intake should be observed in children, especially during periods of rapid growth, performance sports and prolonged stress. The period of pregnancy and breastfeeding is also not without a higher magnesium intake. For a good activation of magnesium we need to have enough vitamin E and calcium. Magnesium and calcium should be maintained in the body in a 1:2 ratio. The recommended daily dose of magnesium is 100 – 500 mg.

Phosphorus: (P)

(P), together with calcium, is a crucial contributor to bone and tooth structure. Up to 80% of the body’s phosphorus is stored in bones and teeth. Phosphorus is also involved in biochemical reactions in the body, in the transport of fatty acids and fats, and in the synthesis of phospholipids (lecithin) for the transmission of nerve impulses. It is also very important for brain and nerve function.

The recommended daily dose is 600-1000 mg.

Sodium (Na) and potassium (K):

Both elements are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Potassium is also essential for the proper functioning of muscles, especially the heart muscle. It stimulates mental activity. Higher intake of dietary sodium in the form of salt can result in high blood pressure and increased stress on the kidneys. Even the increased salt content of infants’ diets may already predispose them to the development of hypertension later in life, which may then result in the development of other diseases (this is why we do not salt children’s food until they are 2.5 years old). Higher sodium intake also causes a loss of potassium in the body. Many enzymes need potassium to function. Potassium deficiency manifests itself in fatigue, weakness, constipation, insomnia and heart rhythm disturbances. Sodium has a recommended daily intake of 130 – 550 mg, potassium 600 – 1800 mg.

Iron: (Fe)

Provides “breathing” for cells, without iron cells would “suffocate”. It is essential for the construction and function of haemoglobin (the red blood pigment in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen around the body). It is one of the most important factors in determining how much oxygen reaches the brain, heart and other important organs, including muscles. When iron is deficient in the diet of children, anemia (anemia) occurs with accompanying phenomena such as pallor, headache, malaise, fatigue. Conversely, sufficient iron increases the body’s defences against infection.

The recommended daily dose is 8 – 25 mg.

Sulfur: (S)

Sulphur is found in the human body in proteins, namely the amino acids cysteine, methionine and taurine. It is also involved in the detoxification of the body.

The recommended daily dose is 0.5 – 1 g.

Zinc: (Zn)

is a component of many enzymes involved in the breakdown of proteins. It is involved in the production of insulin and prolongs its duration of action in the body. It is part of the iris of the eye and is involved in visual function. Zinc must be given with vitamin A to be absorbed. It is an effective protective element against cancer. Its deficiency can lead to poor development and disorders of the gonads. With zinc deficiency, cravings for sweets increase. It is important to treat allergies and skin diseases.

The recommended daily dose is 5 – 25 mg.

Selenium: (Se)

Is a component of enzymes, which together with vitamin E significantly protects the human body by removing free radicals and peroxides. Therefore, it is one of the important antioxidants. Along with vitamin E, it also protects us from the negative effects of heavy metals. Selenium is essential for the production of prostaglandin, which affects blood pressure and prevents the corrosion of arteries, promotes proper heart function and increases the body’s immunity. Sugar totally destroys selenium in the body. Lack of selenium in breast milk can cause the death of an infant.

The recommended daily dose is 5- 200 mcg.

Silicon: (Si)

Is essential for the growth of the body, strengthens blood vessels and bones. It affects the proper formation of connective tissues and cartilage. It is very important for beautiful and healthy skin, nails and hair.

The recommended daily dose is 20 – 40 mg.

Chromium: (Cr)

Is a major component of a factor that is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and insulin action. Deficiency of chromium in the body is attributed to the high consumption of refined white sugar and white flour in our diet. Chromium is needed for growth and is important for strengthening the body’s defenses.

The recommended daily dose is 20 – 200 mcg.

Iodine: (I)

Its main role in the human body is to participate in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine accelerates the metabolism of nutrients. Sufficient iodine improves the quality of skin, hair, nails and teeth. It calms the nerves and improves mental function. Adequate iodine intake during pregnancy is essential because it affects mental and sexual development in the fetus. Excessive intake of otherwise very healthy sauerkraut reduces iodine in the body.

The recommended daily dose is 50-250 mcg.

Fluoride: (F)

is important for healthy teeth and also necessary for the formation of hard and strong bones.

The recommended daily dose is 0.25 – 1 mg.

Copper: (Cu)

(Cu) is important for the production of red blood pigment, promotes iron metabolism and is involved in cellular respiration.

The recommended daily dose is 0.7 – 3 mg.